BPM Studio Gastro 2.0
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Olympus manufactures endoscopic, ultrasound, electrocautery, endotherapy, and cleaning and disinfection equipment. The first flexible Endoscope in the world was co-developed and manufactured by Olympus in Tokyo.[better source needed] With a comprehensive product range, Olympus accounts for a large share of the world market in gastro-intestinal endoscopes. It has roughly 70% share of the global market whose estimated valued at US$2.5 billion. On 28 September 2012, Olympus and Sony announced that the two companies will establish a joint venture to develop new surgical endoscopes with 4K resolution (or higher) and 3D capability.
Abstract: Simple SummaryAcute abdominal pain is a major cause for emergency treatment in horses and associated with a high stress level leading to an increased serum cortisol concentration. Stress can also be assessed by analyzing the heart rate variability (HRV). We investigated whether the stress level was different between horses with different causes of abdominal pain and, therefore, demanding a different treatment strategy. Heart rate, its variability in the time domain analyses, and cortisol level indicated a decrease in the stress level the day after admission and the day of discharge from the hospital in comparison to admission for both conservatively and surgically treated patients. However, such changes, over time, were not seen in horses that were euthanized during the hospitalization. Furthermore, the difference in the parameters measured between horses that were eventually euthanized and those that survived was best visible the day after admission. Therefore, we concluded that HRV can give further important information on the stress level in horses with colic and might be helpful in assessing possible outcome. However, further studies are required to assess the validity of HRV analyses in horses with colic. AbstractHeart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive technique to detect changes in the autonomous nervous system. It has rarely been investigated in horses with colic. Therefore, the objective was to assess the evolution of HRV parameters and cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. The 43 horses included in this study were categorized into three groups according to the treatment (1, surgical; 2, conservative; 3, euthanized). The HRV and laboratory variables were measured at admission (T1), the day after admission (T2), and at discharge (T3) and compared between groups and over time with an ANOVA with Bonferroni correction. Relationships between the HRV parameters themselves and the laboratory variables was assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients. Evolution of the heart rate (HR) over time, mean normal to normal R intervals (meanNN) and cortisol concentrations indicate a decreased sympathetic stimulation over time in group 1 and 2, in contrast to group 3. For group 3, the meanNN and HR differed significantly to group 2 at T1 and to group 1 and 2 at T2. Treatment induced a change in the HRV and cortisol response in horses managed conservatively or surgically but not in horses that required euthanasia. However, further studies are required to assess the validity of HRV analyses in horses with colic.Keywords: frequency domain; time domain; gastrointestinal diseases; equine; stress 1e1e36bf2d